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研究方式: 委託研究
計畫名稱: 污水下水道管線最適管材選用標準之研究及施工標準規範訂定
計畫年度: 年度
研究報告摘要(中英文): 本研究之結論及建議,謹分別條列如后:一、 結論 1. 日本於小管徑Φ200mm以下之管材,以塑膠管及陶土管為主,以1996年之資料為例,塑膠管佔管材85.31%、陶土管佔管材5.64%;另以2002 年為例,塑膠管佔管材90.64%、陶土管佔管材3.68%。 2. 日本於Φ250~300mm之管材,以塑膠管、鋼筋混凝土管及推進管為主,以1996年之資料為例,佔管材之百分率分別為50.51%、28.24% 及11.23%;以2002年為例,分別佔58.43%及6.58%及22.05%;可見推進管有逐年替代明挖施工之鋼筋混凝土管趨勢,Φ250mm以上之較大管徑採鋼筋混凝土管及推進管之機會逐漸增加。 3. 於英國用於污水管線材料,主要計有八種,若以英文字母順序排列為:石棉管、陶土管、混凝土管、石墨鑄鐵管、玻璃纖維強化塑膠管、中密度聚乙烯塑膠管、鋼管及聚氯乙烯塑膠硬質管。 4. 另依英國非正式資料顯示,Φ100mm以下,幾乎全採PVCP,Φ150mm-Φ300mm,陶土管約佔50%,其餘之管材,例如PVC、PE、混凝土、石墨鑄鐵管及玻璃纖維強化塑膠等管材佔50%;Φ400mm以上則以混凝土佔90%以上為最大宗,可見管材價格,仍為管材選用之重要選項。 5. 北市衛工處於污水下水道管材之選用,以塑膠管及鋼筋混凝土管為使用量之主要。 6. 管材選用標準程序,可分成:(1)技術選擇、(2)操作考量、(3)結構設計、(4)施工及(5)經濟考量五個程序。 7. 下水道設計水理之暢通、管與管之接頭膠圈材質及人孔對化學抵抗性,亦應常被注意。 8. 符合PCCES精神之施工標準規範,修正定稿為02531污水管線施工、02532污水管附屬工作、02533污水管管材、02534下水道用戶接管工程埋設施工及02535下水道用戶接管附屬設施等五章。 9. 建立完成以管材之種類、管徑大小及挖深為選用參數,撰寫計算直接施工費用之Visual Basic費用程式,可為經費之快速比較。 10. 將以北市衛工處於預算編列使用之工程單價項目(為台北市政府工務局之O項)為藍本編定02531、02532、02533、02534及02535章瑪之工項代碼。 二、 建議 1. 研究發現相同等級之推進管材及其他工程項目經費,各顧問公司編列預算相距甚遠,宜能統一編定,以節省政府預算。 2. 新採用管材,例如PRCP德規之接頭與CNS規定不同,若能符合國外規範及國內功能需求,建議初期引進能以功能為取向。 3. 所編定之符合PCCES功能之工項代碼及規範,能提供公共工程委員會早日掛入其網站,以提供全國採行。 4. 建築法規應適度修正,將屋頂與陽台落水管分別設置,徹底分流建築物之雨水與污水排放,以利分流制之完整執行。 5. 價廉易於施工之塑膠小口徑清除孔,宜取代傳統施工於後巷、交通量不大及挖深不深(H≦2.3m)道路之塑膠配管箱及混凝土人孔等設施,並鼓勵國內廠商能投入生產。
英文摘要 The conclusion and suggestions of this study are listed as follows: 一、Conclusions 1. In Japan, pipe material of diameter below Φ200mm is primarily made of plastic and clay. In the year of 1996, plastic pipes took up 85.31% and clay pipes occupied 5.64 %. It was also found 90.64 % plastic pipes and 3.68% of clay pipes were used in 2002. 2. In Japan, It showed that the materials for pipes diameters from Φ250 to 300mm were plastic, reinforced concrete and jacking reinforced concrete pipes mainly, that occupied 50.15%, 28.24%, and 11.23% respectively in 1996. In 2002, the percentage was 58.43%, 6.58%, and 22.05% separately. The result showed that jacking pipes had a tendency to replace the open-cut reinforced concrete pipes while the diameters were above Φ250mm. 3. In UK, there were eight types materials used for sewers. By alphabetic order, they are: copper pipe, clay pipe, concrete pipe, graphite pipe, fiberglass consolidated plastic pipe, medium-dense polythene plastic pipe, steel pipe, and firm polyvinyl chloride firm plastic pipe (PVCP). 4. It was also showed in UK, from informal data showed, PVCP was used at the diameter belowΦ100mm mainly. Diameters between 150mm to Φ300mm, the material of clay occupied around 50 % and the rest were PVC, PE, concrete, graphite cast iron, and fiberglass consolidated plastic pipes. In addition, diameter above Φ400mm, concrete pipes occupied 90% of all applied materials. It showed the cost of pipe materials used was an important selection factor. 5. In the sewerage-engineering department of the Public Bureau in the Taipei city government, the plastic pipes and reinforced concrete pipes were applied mainly. 6. The standardized choosing sequential for pipe materials can be divided as: (1) technique choice, (2) operation consideration, (3) structure design, (4) construction and (5) economical consideration. 7. The infiltration of groundwater from the joints between two pipes was often considered, but the chemical resistance toward manholes flexible joints with pipes should be also paid attention. 8. Specifications from Code 02531 to 02535 to fit PCCES standard were supplied in this research. 9. Program development to calculate construction cost directly with various pipes materials by visual basic was also supplied. 10. The items in the system O used by the sewerage-engineering department of the Public Bureau in the Taipei city government were transferred to PCCES Code and can be connected with the specifications from 02531 to 02535. 二、Suggestions 1. It was found that the budgets with the same diameters of jacking pipes offered by different consultant firms were different. It was better to offer reasonable price by government side to control unreasonable budget. 2. For the contents of German (DIN) and CNS standards are not the same, while new material was adopted, for instance PRCP, both standards should be acceptable. 3. When the codes recommended by this report were approved, it is urgent to have this codes registered in the PCCES website and opened to public application. 4. The regulations of building construction should be amended accordingly, such as pipes from rooftop and balcony should be set separately. 5. The small-diameter cleanouts to take the place of typical pits at back yard for its lower prices was recommended. While the excavation depth below 2.3 m and the traffic is not too heavy, the small-diameter cleanouts were recommended to replace the previous plastic boxes and concrete manholes used. Domestic factories to produce small-diameter cleanouts are highly encouraged.
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